Archive for Red
It is amazing how every few years, a new superstar winery seems to emerge. Today, it happens so quickly, the velocity largely due to the media, specifically the writings of Robert Parker, Stephen Tanzer & of course the Wine Spectator.
In contrast, when I was growing up in this industry, I had a bucket list of wines I would hope to taste one day. The list included several vintages each of Chateaux Lafite, Latour, Margaux, Petrus, Cheval Blanc & D’Yquem, DRC Romanee Conti, La Tache & Montrachet, Chave Hermitage, Bollinger “Vieilles Vignes Francaise” & Egon Mueller Scharzhofberger Eiswein or Trockenbeerenauslese, just to name a few.
Outside of that classic realm, my list list also included a few iconic “other” wines, which I had only heard about–such as Penfold’s Grange Hermitage (as it was called way back when), Giacomo Conterno Barolo “Monfortino”, Bartolo Mascarello Barolo, Biondi Santi Brunello di Montalcino, AND, of course Vegas Sicilia Unico.
I was absolutely thrilled, for instance, to taste the 1971 Grange Hermitage in the early 1980’s. The Food & Beverage Director I was working with was from Australia & therefore had quite a stash of Grange Hermitage wines, I believe dating back to 1955. I remember having to trade a 1966 Chateau Haut Brion and a bottle of 1971 Krug to get it. (quite the cost for a young, aspiring sommelier back then). I don’t even want to try & remember what it took for me to get some of the even older vintages.
Likewise, I was absolutely thrilled to taste my first Unico, the 1962, sometime in the mid 1980’s. I must admit I remember being underwhelmed at first. How could after all, an iconic wine, one only dreamed of one day tasting, ever live up to its almost mythological reputation?
With my second taste, however, I came to the realization that the pinnacle of wine for me at that time came from either Bordeaux and Burgundy and I was therefore comparing/judging “other” red wines based upon those 2 models. Oh, the 1971 Grange was much bigger & more resoundingly deeper & opulent than the 19XX Chateau Latour……or the 1962 Unico was more rugged, hearty & coarser than the 1962 Chateau Margaux.
I instead now had to adjust my thinking to….the 1962 Unico was indeed a very interesting, unique red wine, which tasted like NO other. Furthermore, it deftly showed the potential the Tempranillo grape variety has…..AND therefore set a standard for other Spanish reds to be measured by in the future.
I can still say the same today.
I was over on Maui sometime in June to visit with my best friends & their family. In the hotel complex we were staying at, closer to the beach & near the pool is a small, unpretentious “watering hole”/eatery named Castaway Cafe. I have known the owner, Gary Bush, for some years & can readily say he is a true wine fanatic.
Sadly, I had not previously been to his spot in the 20 plus years it has been opened. On this trip, my wife & I finally stopped by there to finally check it out, have a cocktail & enjoy the ocean, its smells & of course the setting sun & its colors.
As expected, I was amazed at the wine list. It wasn’t large but it is well selected & with reasonable prices. Unfortunately, we did not have the time to enjoy one of their bottles, at least on this go around.
Well, last week, we made it a point to get there, looking to enjoy some wine. After much deliberation, we chose the 2004 Whitcraft Pinot Noir “Morning Dew Ranch”, which was only $75 on the list! Chris Whitcraft was a rambunctious, quick witted & wildly colorful character, who for my palate produced some of the finest Pinot Noirs out of California. He worked with some very prestigious vineyards including Hirsch from the true Sonoma Coast (1994 to 2000 vintages), old vine Q & N Blocks from Bien Nacido (both planted in 1973 on their own roots) and Melville, I believe beginning with the 2001. They certainly weren’t for everyone’s palate, but the good ones really rang my bell. His mentor was Burt Williams, the iconic, founding winemaker/owner of Williams & Selyem, when that meant something special. During his tenure there, Burt brought such iconic vineyards such as Rochioli, Allen, Hirsch, Coastlands, Summa to the forefront & therefore truly championed the Russian River & Sonoma Coast appellations, back before it was en vogue. In addition, he started to really get into the Anderson Valley as well. It was therefore no surprise that when he & Ed Selyem sold Williams & Selyem sometime after the 1997 vintage, Burt purchased a spot there to plant his own vineyard, which he named Morning Dew. The core of this vineyard is planted to old DRC, the old Rochioli selection & 2A, each heritage/heirloom Californian vines. It also was NO surprise that Chris Whitcraft was one of the first to get some of this vineyard’s fruit. In this day & age of snazzy, tooty fruity Pinot noses, I adore the muskiness, earthy, forest floor nuances & masculinity of this wine, which is much more pronounced now than when it was released. That pheromone/muskiness core is very reminscent of smells I get from red Burgundy, specifically from more rustic Gevrey Chambertin renditions such as those of Domaine Maume.
I know there are many tasters who will pick this wine apart, pointing out flaws & less than squeaky clean technical skills. That’s okay, cause that means there will be more around for me to buy & drink. Why? Cause I enjoy it, plain & simple. 11 years old, $75….even more so. Thanks Gary!!!!
So, that bottle didn’t last very long! The night was young & the conversation, fun & lively. Ok, let’s order bottle #2. 2005 Whitcraft Pinot Noir “N Block”. This time, I asked the manager if he could stick the bottle in some ice for 7 or 8 minutes, as it was a VERY hot & muggy night. Bien Nacido is a VERY large vineyard located in the Santa Maria Valley, down in the Santa Barbara appellation. This parcel, N Block, was planted in 1973 on its own roots. Chris typically got the Martini selection, & the resulting Pinot was typically the most reticent of his Pinots, requiring considerable coaxing/bottle aging for it to open up. It is the bottling of his which shows the most vinosity, intricacies & character, & this certainly reaffirmed that. Eventhough this wine was 10 years old, it was still a baby, surprisingly closed, deep & well structured. I suggest you don’t open this wine at this time. Be patient. It will be worth the wait, believe me.
That bottle was also emptied far too quickly. Ok, one last bottle. We decided on the 2005 Whitcraft Pinot Noir “Q Block”, also $62.50!!!! Q Block is adjacent to N Block & was also planted in 1973 on its own roots. Whitcraft used to get the Pommard selection & the resulting Pinot was typically more forward, more masculine with rounder, deep flavors & more base note character. As I would suspect & as I find normally the case, this was the favorite of the night for most of the tasters.
I found all 3 Pinots to be so enjoyable & heart warming. Each was like a heart tugging song, sung by a truly soulful singer & in his own way. There was only 1 Chris Whitcraft & this trio clearly reminded me why.
If you are in the Kaanapali area of Maui & looking for some good wine, make sure you visit Castaway Cafe!
Angelo Gaja certainly has been quite the controversial figure in his neck of the woods & for many reasons. Still, he certainly has brought Italian nebbiolo to the world-class stage (with a huge cross over potential for Cabernet & Bordeaux drinkers) AND set the pace for top echelon prices & therefore a completely new standard for quality. The wine media have, for the most part, enthusiastically jumped on to the fast moving Gaja train, which is reflected by the perennial big scores & high praise. One would have thought with such a high profile meteoric rise to superstardom, there would have been a hitch, stall, or some kind of decline along the way. No such thing. The Gaja Piemontese train seems to be running at full steam & these 3 wines showed why.
Gaja produced some interesting red wines in the 90’s. I was, however, apprehensive about how his showy, flambouyant style would do in a big, ripe vintage like 1997. I knew the press would certainly love the wines, I just wondered if I would. Furthermore, I had recently had the 1998 & found it to be quite closed down & a shame to have opened the bottle at this atge of its life. It is so intense with a massive structure & quite a tannic grip. The 1997 in comparison, although also quite closed, is decidedly riper, with much more lavish, opulent fruit (MUCH rounder) & darker base notes than the 1998. A very powerful, mega-concentrated red which, in this case, can be quite the cross over wine for avid Bordeaux & California Cabernet collectors. You will be thrilled with this one, that’s for sure!
“Gaja’s Conteisa, although the grapes are grown in the Barolo appellation, is classified as Langhe DOC due to the 8% Barbera that is added to the Nebbiolo. Much to the chagrin of the local cognoscenti, Angelo believes the Barbera addition adds acidity and freshness to the wine. He also firmly states that this is no indication of a trend towards making Super Piemonte wines and his relatively new approach is used only in vintages that merit the addition. The wine is named for the medieval ‘conteisa,’ or quarrel, between the zones of La Morra and Barolo over the prime vineyard land of Cerequio“. Quite a different take on Nebbiolo than what I had previously experienced through his Barbaresco–seemingly more masculine, muskier & leaner. I have not had many Conteisa, so cannot make any broader statements, but will say I don’t think this 1997, as resounding as it is, is of Grand Cru kind of quality, at least in its youth.
I liked this wine alot. I remember thinking upon release how tight fisted, seemingly lean & mouth puckering this wine was. It has really started to open up again, even in comparison to 5 years ago when I last had it. It is pretty, has enticing perfume, wonderful fruit, structure & balance, done with class & superb craftsmanship.
In our ongoing search for “good” classical wine, here are FOUR from Burgundy. I use these as standards, not only for blind tasting, but more importantly to measure others by. Yes, just another really good opportunity to learn!
One of our all time favorite Beaujolais producers.
“While many critics attribute Michel Chignard’s success to the soil, Kermit would argue that his traditionalist stance on vineyard management and winemaking is essential to craft such great wines. As ardent defenders of traditional Beaujolais methods, the Chignards take a minimalist approach in both the vineyards and the cellar. The Chignard’s have recently started making wine from another Beaujolais cru, Juliénas, which produces a beautiful, high-toned wine in keeping with the style of the domaine. La Revue du Vin claims that the aromas from their wines evoke memories of the great Chambolle-Musignys from Burgundy, to the North…but who’s to say, maybe they got it reversed”.
2011 Henri Perrusset Macon Villages
A favorite, absolutely tasty, delicious, ‘country” styled Chardonnay. Not everything has to be aristocratic or grand. I also find “genuine” quite a fine attribute!
“For decades, the Mâconnais has been dominated by the banal bottlings of cooperative cellars; not the sort of quality that leads novices to explore the wines of the region. Henri Perrusset’s vineyards and home are located in the small town of Farges-les-Mâcon, on the northernmost spur of the limestone subsoil that characterizes the appellation of Mâcon. Farges is not far away from the village named (believe it or not) Chardonnay. The limestone in Farges is more marly than the compact limestone farther south in Pouilly-Fuissé. It is hard and intensely white, but breaks apart into small pieces and it is loaded with quartz and marine fossils as well. This type of soil is easier to work despite all the stones, provides great drainage for the vines, and gives the wines their grainy minerality. Our Mâcon-Villages is a custom blend of all his other holdings around Farges”.
2009 William Fevre Chablis Grand Cru “Valmur”
Chardonnay in it’s purist form! Precise……pure……ethereal……sophisticated! In addition, these wines are certainly capable of aging, but for me, the real fascination is how these wines work at the dinner table. Furthermore, when one actually sees how small of an acreage the Grand Cru vineyards really are, perhaps they will appreciate the wines even more.
2006 Lucien Boillot Gevrey Chambertin Premier Cru “Les Cherbaudes”
Classic RED Burgundy.
“Pierre Boillot is a rare master of both the Côtes de Beaune and the Côtes de Nuits–not only does he have the vineyards but also the savoir-faire and skill. He inherited very old vines from his father in the Côtes de Nuits, including a parcel of 94 year old vines right next to the Grand Cru, Chapelle Chambertin and some in the Côtes de Beaune from his great-grandfather Henri Boillot, who was originally from Volnay. Every wine is a classic representation of its appellation–from Volnay and Pommard to Gevrey and Nuits-Saint-Georges, as Pierre’s work in the cellars is geared towards transparent, terroir-driven wines of purity and finesse”.
Mourvedre is a grape variety grown in many parts of the world, most notably in Spain & southern France. Many wine lovers today, however, might know this grape as the “M” found in many of the popular GSM blends coming out of warmer climates such as Australia & California. We put this tasting together to show, while Mourvedre is not a mainstream grape variety, it is capable of producing some VERY interesting, provocative masculine red wines which are truly like no other, especially in certain parts of France. We, then, served several of these French bottlings to help tasters see & hopefully better understand what potential this grape variety has. Just another really good opportunity to learn!
2011 Chateau La Roque Pic St Loup “Les Vieilles Vignes de Mourvedre”–“This is unique terroir. Garrigue, the aromatic scrub brush that dominates the landscapes of the South, asserts its presence among these vines”. Terraced hillsides, clay-limestone soils, 50 to 60 year old vines, organically/biodynamically farmed. Though quite masculine & sultry, the wine is thankfully done in a much more delicious, “country” style.
2010 Domaine du Joncier Lirac “Les Muses”–Here is a wonderful discovery from the village of Lirac of France’s southern Rhone Valley across the river from the more famous Chateauneuf-du-Pape. This unique cuvee is predominately Mourvedre, biodynamically farmed & pounded by the fierce mistral wind. The inky black color will tell you it is Mourvedre, but the surprising refinement & suave-ability, will tell you this is crafted by a female vigneron, which all makes for a very different & unique perspective on what this grape variety can do.
2010 Domaine du Gros Nore Bandol–As importer Kermit Lynch once wrote—“Magnificent Bandols made in the simplest manner, très franc de goût, with a whole lotta soul”. The vineyard is but 16 hectares of clay limestone soils located right down the road from the iconic Domaine Tempier. This is a much more masculine, robust, earthy style of Mourvedre with a dark, more sinister personality. We find this wine to be especially well suited for wild game & aged meats. Furthermore, it gets even more provocative & intriguing with a little bottle age, so we suggest you put a few bottles stashed away to enjoy later.
2008 Domaine Tempier Bandol “Cabassaou”–one of the true iconic wines of southern France! Tempier produces 3 single vineyard Bandol–La Migoua, La Tourtine & Cabassaou. Cabassaou used to be a lower, old vine parcel of LaTourtine, but was produced & bottled (at least commercially) as single vineyard with the 1987 vintage. This cuvee is typically 90-95 % Mourvedre & is therefore very masculine, dense, powerful, highly vinous & soulful.
1997 Domaine de Terrebrune Bandol–this domaine is located in Ollioules, east of Bandol, at a higher elevation than Tempier with terraced hillside vineyards. The soil is still clay limestone with some marl. I find their Bandol wines, eventhough produced from at least 85% Mourvedre, to be more ethereal & more refined than those of Tempier or Gros Nore in its youth. I was very surprised at how wonderfully perfumed & mesmerizing the nose was when we popped the cork. It almost had an apricot/nectarine quality, along with underlying floral nuances amid the earth & rustic character. Even on the palate, this wine also had a deliciousness & a prettiness, which are not qualities I would normally associate with Mourvedre. I only wish I had bought more! This is definitely a Mourvedre in all its glory.
1985 Domaine Tempier Bandol “La Migoua”—typically, this is the Tempier bottling which speaks to me the most. For my palate, La Migoua is the most forward out of the gates, the most masculine, the most rugged, the most stony & the most soulful, if soulfulness could ever be defined. In terms of rusticity, which the Tempier Mourvedre red wines are well renown for, La Migoua has more base notes, deep, bordering brooding, with a musk character underlying the resounding earthy nuances. Interestingly, the vineyard is at the highest elevation of the 3 (270 meters), an almost ampitheater like setting with red, ochre, blue clay & limestone soils. It also typically has the least % of Mourvedre to the blend of the 3. Tasting this 1985 was like tasting a bit of history….when all of the Peyrauds were healthy & working at the winery……when Domaine Tempier was a more country-ish kind of Camelot–full of magic & romantic notions, all done in a very “down to earth ” Provencal way. In its youth, I remember this wine had a VERY rustic character, which many New World wine drinkers might consider too rustic & off-putting. With this kind of bottle age, however, the perfume is truly captivating, as the sun baked rocks, surrounding wild shrub, herbs & pine trees again make an encore appearance in the nose & taste, amongst the cedar, tobacco, smoke, dried cherries, leather & li-hing-mui smells. Tempier magic!
2007 was a pretty good vintage for Pinot Noir up & down California. Even before any wines were actually released, several of the wine media were hyping the vintage as one of the best ever for Pinot. That was 8 years ago. We did this tasting to see how a few are doing today. Yes, just another opportunity to learn.
2007 Roessler Pinot Noir “Alder Springs Vineyard”–the founder, Roger Roessler, had a real fascination for Pinot Noir (& Chardonnay) & sourced fruit from some pretty interesting vineyards in his search for excellence. Alder Springs, for instance, is made up of rolling hills with many different sun exposures in the northern part of the Mendocino county near Laytonville. It is very remote & quite breathtaking in its scope. Owner Stu Bewley is a vineyard fanatic with all kinds of viticultural & farming techniques/experiments going on there. I also recall that Wells Gutherie at one point was helping Roessler produce the wines, all making for a very intriguing wine project, which insiders have kept an eye on for some years…..that is until Roger sold the project. I am not sure what to make of this 2007 today. It might have been in a dumb stage, as it was really dominated by oak nuances, even in the taste with the alcohol really poking out in the finish. We have 1 bottle left & will look to retaste again in the near future.
2007 Cobb Pinot Noir “Rice Spivak Vineyard”–the Cobb family own the highly revered Coastlands Vineyard. Son, Ross Cobb, has his own label & also made the wines at Hirsch Vineyard, after a stint working at Williams & Selyem. The roughly 6 acre Rice Spivak vineyard is a combination of Dijon clones & the Swan heritage selection, all planted in sandy loam/volcanic ash soils. Wild yeast fermented & the juice spent 17 months in French oak, 30% new. This is a very graceful, classy, suave style of Pinot & is showing really nicely right now, with harmony & wonderful balance.
2007 Brewer Clifton Pinot Noir “Ampelos Vineyard”–here was an opportunity to taste a BC Pinot with some age on it. Because they typically use a lot of stem inclusion, the resulting wines need some bottle age to resolve itself some….& this wine has finally started coming out of its shell. Yes, this is a surprisingly big, flambouyant Pinot, with the minerality definitely there in support, which by the way also helps with the wine’s buoyancy as well. Well worth checking out! Ampelos is a hillside vineyard on the eastern side of the Santa Rita Hills. The 2 acre parcel which BC works with is 828, planted in 2004.
2007 Scherrer Pinot Noir “Big Brother”—Fred Scherrer produced his first “Big Brother” Pinot Noir with the 1999 vintage. His next one was the 2006 & here we are with his 3rd. The fruit is mostly Dijon 777 grown near Annapolis out on the true Sonoma Coast. This very cool spot is why there is much structure & hutzpah in the wine. Amazingly, even though this wine is 8 years old, one wouldn’t even notice on first taste. This is a gorgeous, delicious, well balanced beauty with a long way still to go. Save your bottles for another day. You will be glad you did.
I recently sent out an email. which stated the following, & here are some of the responses I got back. I purposefully did not include names, as who said what is not the point. It really is about sharing insights & learning from each other. I have found there is never just one answer.
I am writing a piece on Syrah and am hoping to get your thoughts on the subject. I recently read somewhere the Syrah has a propensity to go “reductive” in bottle.
What does that mean? How? Why?
Is there other grapes with this tendency?
Reductive, anaerobic, as opposed to oxidative.
Reduction can show as shut down with muted aromatics and palate to an extreme of stinky, sulfitey aromas and off flavors.
Syrah is notorious for being reductive in the cellar, as well. Wines are made using non-oxidadative techniques more and more, resulting in wines with a tendency towards reduction. Syrah is oftentimes aged on lees. This helps protect the wine, keeping CO2 in solution and oxygen away. This can drive the wine further into reduction.
When I’ve had the opportunity to taste at Clape and Faury they pour young Syrah’s from foudre or barrel, they are often reduced. They often then follow with the previous vintage out of barrel and bottle and the reduction has disappeared.
Syrah made by Cabernet Sauvignon makers where they rack and return the wine often tends to be less reductive. However, the wine tastes less like Syrah, in my opinion.
I like having some reduction in our Syrahs, and most of our wines for that matter, during the aging process. Keeping our wines on lees in barrels enables us to use less SO2 during the barrel aging process. The wines tend to be a little closed, especially during the winter. I like that. The wines evolve slower and are a little tight when bottled. A little time in bottle or decanting will help.
If a vineyard has been sprayed with sulpher too close to harvest, there will often be some residue on the grapes and will result in stinky, reductive, sulfite-like aromas and off flavors in the wine.
Chardonnay comes to mind as a variety that also tends to be reductive. We always have several barrels that show those reductive characteristics. These barrels tend to be barrels that were the last filled from that particular lot and tank. So these barrels likely have more lees and heavier solids in them.
I’ve read recently regarding the style of Chardonnay winemaking, Burgundy in particular, and the inclination winemakers have towards the reductive, matchstick quality. Think about winemakers whose style and trademark go hand in hand with the matchstick quality: Coche-Dury, Roulot, Pierre Yves Colin.
We like some of that character in our Chardonnays, for sure.
It’s a fascinating topic always worth chewing on. I’d love to hear your impressions and thoughts on it and your experiences with wines in bottle and in winery cellars.
I did forget to some notes regarding nutrients during fermentation.
If a vineyard is low or deficient in nitrogen, the grapes or juice in the fermenter will be low in nitrogen. We know this by a juice sample we send to the laboratory to measure sugar concentration, acidity, potassium, and nitrogen and ammonia for fermentation.
Yeast, native or lab, can stress during fermentation if there aren’t enough nutrients in the must. A too warm fermentation and not enough oxygen will also stress yeast. When yeast are stressed, not only is there a risk of a stuck fermentation but the wine can also end up with the hydrogen sulfide spectrum of odors and flavors – extreme reductive smells and flavors.
We don’t add nutrients to our Chardonnay. We taste and smell our red fermentations along fermentation observations. If there’s an off smell or flavor we’ll pump it over longer to introduce some oxygen to the fermentation. Usually, that helps a lot. If that doesn’t do the trick we will add small doses of yeast nutrients to rid the wine of those attributes. These nutrients include nitrogen, ammonia, yeast hulls.
It’s much harder to rid the wine of any of those characters once the wine is dry and in barrel.
Without getting into gains and losses of electrons, “reductive” is a loosey-goosey term used by wine tasters to refer to a wine that show sulfur-based aromas, things like rotten egg, burnt rubber, burnt match, rotten cabbage, etc. With oxygen, these sulfur-based aromas can dissipate to reveal the true character of the wine but occasionally they can develop into something more permanent. Copper sulfate is used to remove excess sulfur based aromas but it does not remove mercaptans (more the rotting cabbage/onion smell). Why is Syrah more prone to reduction? I don’t know exactly why but it may have to do with with the lack of nutrients available for yeast and/or the chemical makeup of Syrah. Other varieties with which we work that are prone to reduction during elevage are Mourvèdre and Petite Sirah. Interestingly, I have never had a reductive Zinfandel. Sulfur-based compounds play a significant role in the aromas of many whites such as Riesling, Gewurztraminer, Colombard, Sauvingon Blanc, and Petit Manseng.
For a nice overview of reduction in wine see (http://nanaimowinemakers.org/Steps/H2S_Issues.htm) Syrah and other varietals ( Riesling, Sauvignon Blanc and certain Pinot noirs for us) have a biochemical propensity to resist oxidation and therefore being reductive. It is positive as it gives them a greater ability to age but will also present challenges as it goes through phases where it generates sulfur compounds that change the fragrance and mouth feel of a wine (usually for the worst or at least masking other features). It is complicated to explain as Oxidation and reduction happen at the same time and has to do with layers of chemical reactions I am not that comfortable with and are actually not that well understood. We learn how to link it with, the farming, the fermentation, nutrients, temperatures etc. One becomes familiar with it through sensory analysis and empirical observations.
You know I’m not a chemist so I’m sure you will find the chemistry answer from someone else. What I can tell you is the practical side, and that is Syrah is opposite of Pinot Noir in this regard. I take a completely different approach in protection of the two varietals.
Pinot needs to be protected from oxygen, it breaks down easily, the color, the aromas the textures all seem to be unstable.
Its its not cellared at the right temp, if the lees are not perfectly clean, if the ph is too high, if the free so2 is below molecular threshold, pinot can fall apart. I only go 6-9 months before the lees have consumed all the extra o2 thats available, and needs to be racked then sulfured.
Syrah on the other hand is very forgiving. Although I cellar everything at the same temp, (55 degrees year round) syrah eats up oxygen at any opportunity. I typically go an entire 24 months in barrel on the gross lees before its racked for the first time and receives its very first addition of so2. Pretty crazy huh? Obviously I only work with cold climate syrah (low ph, high acid) and this allows me to take this approach with much more confidence, because the chemistry of the wine is stable.
Reduction is lack of oxygen. Syrah eats up oxygen and when its tapped out the wine goes into a reductive state. Once the wine hits more oxygen, the reduction aroma lifts off the wine like a protective blanket. Chardonnay (Roulot is a great example) is another grape always flirting with reduction.
Syrah does have an odd perpensity to become reductive or form H2S, Hydrogen Sulfide or rotten egg aroma.
So does Gamay. People think it is due to the thick skin on a big grape. Serine which is smaller doesn’t do it as much. It is tougher to aerate after it forms because it oxidizes easily. It probably has something to do with the nature of the chemicals in the larger skins.
This is a complicated issue.
‘Reduction’ is not a term used consistently in even the most technically savvy wine communities. It can be a term for a ‘not very splashy racking strategy’ vs reduced sulfur compound formation at some point in the wines development. The t wo do not have to be connected by anything other than Sulfur being part of the chemistry.
Sensory wise, it’s about how volatile thiols pose themselves according to the reduction-oxidation potentials of their parallel equilibria. If they are not there in large numbers or in highly stinky form, nobody senses them. If conditions vary to Chang amounts or forms, even low levels are distracting. It’s not a nutshell subject.
Makes sense now. Right?
The two usages of the term are not joined at the hip. It drives me crazy. Once you have Carbon and Sulfur joined, the options become…complicated.
Think more about HOW you get there vs WHERE you happen to be.
There’s way more to say on the subject, but I’m tapped out right now keeping things at home happening. Plus, I’m no expert chemist. I only have a BS with at-home graduate studies and decades of experimentation.
Thank you for digging into that mud hole. It is a fertile subject.
Keep asking those questions.
Never if one’s systems are in place.
“Reductive” is an excuse.
I find that Syrah likes a traditional approach to fermentation, and using native yeast, moderate amounts of nutrients, low SO2 at the destemmer, some whole cluster inclusion, all help to bring the level of sulfide development in the must to about the same level as any other grape. Basically, sometimes a little happens, but if it is a small amount I don’t worry about it too much.
Regarding elevage, I find it all starts in fermentation, so if the lees are clean and your fermentation went well, no further problems occur. I keep Syrah on the lees for about 8-10 months usually, sometimes longer, with no problems.
If Syrah goes reductive in bottle, it was already reductive in barrel. period. The same thing goes with screwcaps. It was a problem that the winemaker thought was addressed, which reared its ugly head again in bottle.
But, as others have noted, some “reductive” compounds bring typicity in small amounts. I don’t mind it in small amounts, but I don’t want to smell vinyl or perm or diapers.
I also am not a fan of many Roulot wines that too me are deeply flawed. Coche on the other hand I think is well judged.
The Managing Partner of both DK Steakhouse & Sansei Waikiki, Ivy Nagayama, loves creating interesting & thought provoking wine & food pairings. Her latest craze is with the wines from the Pacific Northwest. On this night, she & Sansei Exec Chef Jason Miyasaki created a menu & pairing for visionary wine mogul, Mark Tarlov of Chapter 24 out of Oregon & a few select local customers.
Intermezzo: Opakapaka Carpaccio—Maui onions, Nalo basil relish, red jalapenos, kalamansi essence
2nd Taste: Red Wine Marinated Grilled Duck Breast—with Nalo Farms mixed greens & roasted fingerling potatoes, Maui onions, hard boiled quail egg, & a pomegranate balsamic vinaigrette (wines: 2012 Chapter 24 Pinot Noir “Flood” & 2012 Chapter 24 Pinot Noir “Fire”)
Entree: Red Wine Vinegar Braised Kurobuta Pork Belly—with Kaneshiro Farm’s bok choy, Hamakua Ali’i mushrooms, roasted peanuts, saffron rice pilaf & star anis jus (wine: 2012 Chapter 24 “Last Chapter”)
Over at our DK Steakhouse, located in Waikiki, we dry age our own steaks. Generally speaking, as the meat dry ages, moisture evaporates from the muscle which concentrates the natural meat flavor & at the same time, helps to tenderize (the natural enzymes help break down the connective tissue) the steak.
The showpiece steak to try here is a 21 day dry aged “bone in” rib-eye. We start with a terrific no growth, no hormone steak. In addition to the qualities listed above, once the steak gets over 20 days of aging, it also develops a nutty, gamey, almost bleu cheese like character which true steak lovers really look for & relish. I bring this up, only because it will be an important consideration when we look to pair a wine. For me, 21 day typically is a good sweet spot for many to enjoy.
DK Steakhouse also has an 1800 degree oven, which essentially sears the steak on 2 sides, keeping the middle tender & juicy when cooked medium rare. In addition, the steak does not get that charred, burnt taste on the outside like charcoal or wood cooking can create. This is again, another factor to consider when pairing wines.
Yes, to me, this is an ideal dish to pair all kinds of red wines with.
For many wine collectors, this is certainly the dish to bust out your treasured bottle of Californian Cabernet/Merlot or red Bordeaux. Since most wine collectors are well versed in this arena, I will only mention the Forman Cabernet Sauvignon. Ric Forman Cabernets are not like anything else from the Napa Valley. They exude a much more gravelly character, which really steps forward in the wine with bottle age. I find the gravel rusticity works very well with this steak’s more rustic character. In addition, the Forman Cabernets are not “fruit bombs” & have really good structure, elegance & wonderful balance. I have been very fortunate to taste many older vintages of these masterpieces recently & would suggest the 2002, if I had a choice. The 2002 still has an amazing, resiliant core AND, the gravelly character is very prominent, both qualities very ideal to create an interesting pairing.
True wine lovers can also use this as an opportunity to be adventurous & try other kinds of wines. Consider, for example, a hearty (for the meat’s full flavor & marbling), more rustic styled (which will work with the nutty/gamey edge) red wine. My first, knee jerk thoughts are from France’s Rhone Valley –Clape (or Allemand) Cornas, a Syrah based red from the north or Vieux Telegraphe Chateauneuf-du-Pape “La Crau” (or Sang des Cailloux Vacqueyras) a Grenache blend from the south. In each case, I would suggest vintages which still feature a virile core of mojo, fruit & structure. For both the Clape & Allemand Cornas, therefore, consider the 2000 vintage. Although not overly heralded, having had both recently, they both still have the hutzpah to handle this wonderfully marbled steak & the wild gaminess to make things interesting. In the case of the Vieux Telegraphe & the Sang des Cailloux, my wish would be the 1998, both still being a real beast with lots of true character, depth & soul.
If you are looking for a Californian red wine, I suggest this can be a wonderful opportunity to explore California Syrah & other “Rhone Varietal” red wines. There are growing number of really interesting, provocative renditions being produced up & down the state. Standouts which immediately come to mind include more worldly styled Syrah based reds, such as the 2001 Ojai Syrah “Bien Nacido Vineyard” (from the Santa Maria Valley); the 2011 Linne Calodo “Perfectionist”; the 2006 Saxum “Bone Rock” (both from the limestone/siliceous hillsides of Paso Robles); the 2010 Neyers Syrah “Old Lakeville Road” (from the Sonoma Coast, near Petaluma) or the 2007 Autonom Syrah “Law of Proportions” (a blend of Santa Barbara & Arroyo Grande grapes). Somehow these kinds of masculine, rustic, earth driven, peppery reds create a real interesting synergy with dry aged steaks like this.
Here are some other interesting wines/grape varieties, recommended by managing Partner, Ivy Nagayama, to explore–
–Mourvedre (Domaine Tempier or Domaine Gros Nore from Provence, France)
–Nero d’Avola (Riofavara “Sciave” from the southern tip of Italy)
–Malbec (Clos la Coutale Cahors from southwest France or Tritono from Argentina)
–Tannat (2004 Cambiata from Monterey, California)
–Nebbiolo (2005 Barolo or Barbaresco from Piemonte, Italy or the 2004 Palmina”Ranch Sisquoc” from Santa Barbara, California)
“In Pursuit of Balance” Thursday, February 26th 6pm
A few years ago, then Michael Mina Restaurants wine director, Rajat Parr along with Jasmine Hirsch from Hirsch Vineyards, launched a concept they entitled “In Pursuit of Balance”. Here is an excerpt from their website–
“In Pursuit of Balance is a non-profit organization seeking to promote dialogue around the meaning and relevance of balance in California pinot noir and chardonnay.
This growing group of producers is seeking a different direction with their wines, both in the vineyard and the winery. This direction focuses on balance, non-manipulation in the cellar, and the promotion of the fundamental varietal characteristics which make pinot noir and chardonnay great – subtlety, poise and the ability of these grapes to serve as profound vehicles for the expression of terroir”.
Needless to say, it created much controversy, as wineries lined up taking sides/stances on the issue. There is never just one right answer to these things, AND to me, the issues were, in fact, not as important as the questions being asked.
The IPOB website further asks—
“What is balance in pinot noir and why does it matter?
Balance is the foundation of all fine wine. Loosely speaking, a wine is in balance when its diverse components – fruit, acidity, structure and alcohol – coexist in a manner such that should any one aspect overwhelm or be diminished, then the fundamental nature of the wine would be changed. The genius of Pinot Noir is found in subtlety and poise, in its graceful and transparent expression of the soils and climate in which it is grown. Balance in Pinot Noir enables these
characteristics to reach their highest expression in a complete wine where no single element dominates the whole. The purpose of this event is to bring together like-minded growers, winemakers, sommeliers, retailers, journalists and consumers who believe in the potential of California to produce profound and balanced Pinot Noirs.
This isn’t a rebellion, but rather a gathering of believers. This is meant to open a dialogue between producers and consumers about the nature of balanced Pinot Noir, including:
- Whole-picture farming and winemaking. Artisan winemaking techniques are a given at this point. Looking beyond that, let’s consider farming, or even pre-farming decisions, and the thought process behind identifying a great terroir. How do these decisions affect the balance of the ultimate wine?
- Growing healthy fruit and maintaining natural acidity to achieve optimum ripeness without being overripe. What is ripeness and what is its relation to balance?
- A question of intention: Can balance in wine be achieved through corrections in the winery or is it the result of a natural process informed by carefully considered intention at every step of the way?
- Reconsidering the importance of heritage Pinot Noir clones with respect to the omnipresent Dijon clones.
What do heritage clones contribute to balanced wine?
Pinot Noir grown on the west coast has been the next big thing for a while now, but perhaps that shouldn’t be the case. Popularity is an exaggeration, a distortion of Pinot Noir’s defining qualities and a distraction from what makes it truly great. As Pinot Noir lovers, we face a collective challenge in the search for truly expressive, honest wine: What must we do to achieve balance in California Pinot Noir?”
For this tasting, we have chosen wines from 4 members of IPOB (from 4 different vintages) to showcase what can be—
from the cool confines of the Anderson Valley, this vineyard is located in the hills to the east, roughly 1300 to 1500 feet elevation, 30+ year old vines—2A & Pommard heritage selections. Business entrepeneur Peter Knez a few years back purchased both Demuth & the adjacent, well renown, celebrated Cerise Vineyard. Both vineyards feature bear wallow soils on a wind pounded hillside. Knez smartly hired Anthony Filiberti of Anthill Farms to over see this project & the wines have so far been pretty darn good–lighter in color, enticingly fragrant, fresh & snappy with wonderful texture, refinement, balance & only 13.2 alcohol, naturally. This is just the beginning………
Jason Drew is one VERY talented winemaker. We have watched, in fascination, him grow & develop over the years & there is NO doubt, he is in the zone right now. The Valenti Vineyard is perched up in the Mendocino Coastal Ridge roughly between 1200 to 1600 feet elevation, planted to 667 & 10% Rochioli cuttings. This 2009 is absolutely gorgeous & well textured. 72 case production. Yes, this boy is on fire right now.
Ojai is the wine project of Adam Tolmach, one of California’s true winemaking masters of all time. Over the years, his wines showcase an Old World sensibility, especially for minerality & balance. This 2008 Clos Pepe Vineyard designate is produced from a Pommard heritage selection harvested at a scant 1.5 ton per acre. This vineyard is continually pounded by a gusting coastal wind, which at least partially accounts for its low vigor. I don’t typically quite understand wines produced from the Clos Pepe vineyard. (Although, I actually prefer the Chardonnay to the Pinot Noir). The wines are often lean, angular & tight fisted. Furthermore, I am not sure this is a Cru quality vineyard, but I would say, Tolmach produced a wonderfully pure, minerally, well balanced, wonderfully textured, classy Pinot which is very tasty, sumptuous & interesting right now. 140 case production.
The Bien Nacido vineyard is very large at over 800 acres. Over the years, the 2 blocks which have really stood out for Pinot Noir are “Q” & “N”. Justin Willett now gets tiny quantities of “N” Block–Martini heritage selection, planted in 1973 on its own roots. (I also believes he gets a tiny bit of Q Block too). As expected, this finished wine displays lots of vinosity & character, much more so than the “G” block fruit he previously worked with, AND much more interesting & provocative. Yes, this is quite a standout & well worth trying to get. Roughly 100 case production.